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Legal Dictionary - Glossary of Legal Terms

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Technical Errors. Errors committed during a trial that have not prejudiced the losing party's rights and therefore are not grounds for reversal on appeal.

Tender. An offer of money.

Testate. A person who has made a will or who has died leaving a will.

Testify. To give evidence as a witness under oath.

Testimony. Evidence delivered by a witness at trial either orally at trial or in the written form of an affidavit or deposition.

Third Party Benefits. In insurance law, third party benefits refer to the amount of available coverage that the at-fault party has in bodily injury and property damage.

Third Party Lawsuit. In workers' compensation law, when an injury is caused by the act or failure to act of a party other than the employer, that party is the "third party," and the injured worker may file a lawsuit against that party. An example of a third party lawsuit in workplace injury would be a products liability suit against the manufacturer of a defective tool.

Thrombotic Stroke. Occurs when a blood clot forms in an artery and blocks blood flow to the brain.

Tinnitus. A ringing or roaring sound in one or both ears.

Tipstaff. Court-appointed officer whose duty it is to serve the judge in a variety of ways while court is in session. See bailiff.

Tort. In civil law , generally, a wrong or injury committed against a person or property. A tort does not include breach of contract.

Tort-Feasor. One who commits a tort.

Tortious. Having the quality of a tort; the wrongdoer.

Total Disability. A work-related injury that results in a complete loss of earning power. In a workers' compensation case, this may also be the phrase used to describe the compensation paid when an injured employee is totally impaired due to a work-related injury. Benefits at the total disability rate are generally two-thirds of wages up to a maximum compensation rate.

Total Loss. In a vehicle context, when the cost of repairs is more than the value of the vehicle. This term gives rise to the common term “totaled.”

Transcript. Official written copy of proceedings in a case, including hearings, depositions, and trial. Usually made by a court reporter.

Traumatic Brain Injury. An insult to the brain caused by an external physical force that may produce a diminished or altered state of consciousness that results in an impairment of cognitive abilities or physical functioning and/or a disturbance of behavioral or emotional functioning.

Trespasser. In civil law, a person who enters land without invitation, permission or privilege.

Trial. The judicial examination and determination of issues between the parties to an action.

Trial Calendar. List maintained by the clerk of court or the trial judge of cases awaiting trial, which includes trial dates, names of attorneys representing parties, and other such information.

Trial Court. The first court to hear the case, as opposed to an appellate court which hears appeals of decisions made in trial courts.

Tribunal. A court of law or the whole body of judges who comprise a jurisdiction.

Treble Damages. In certain cases, damages awarded by a jury that are tripled in amount.

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